1 pertaining to or involving slaves; "the servile wars of Sicily"
2 submissive or fawning in attitude or behavior; "spoke in a servile tone"; "the incurably servile housekeeper"; "servile tasks such as floor scrubbing and barn work" [ant: unservile]
3 involving slaves; "Brown's attempt at servile insurrection" [syn: servile(a)]
- /ˈsə(ɹ)v.aɪl/ /"s@(r)v.aIl/ a UK
Of or pertaining to a slave
submissive or slavish
Slavery (also called thralldom) is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to work.
Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation (such as wages) in return for their labor. As such, slavery is one form of unfree labor. In its narrowest sense, the word slave refers to people who are treated as the property of another person, household, company, corporation or government. This is referred to as chattel slavery.
Current situationAlthough outlawed in nearly all countries today, slavery is still practiced in some parts of the world. According to a broad definition of slavery used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there are 27 million people (although some put the number as high as 200 million) in virtual slavery today, spread all over the world. According to FTS, these slaves represent the largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history and the smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.
FTS claims that present-day slaves have been sold for as little as US$40, in Mali, for young adult male laborers, or as much as US$1,000 in Thailand for HIV-free, young females, suitable for work in brothels. The lower limit represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave: the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 in the United States would have been about US$ in present-day terms (US$1,000 in 1850). That difference, even allowing for differences in purchasing power, is significant. It is probably due to the fact of today's greater population, making human life cheaper. As a result of the lower price, the economic advantages of present-day slavery are clear.
Although outlawed in most countries today slavery is, nonetheless, practised secretly in many parts of the world — with outright enslavement still taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Of those rescued, 69 of them were children. In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing an enslaved worker. Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population. Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining. According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in 'the worst forms of child labor' in 2002.
In November 2006, the International Labour Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labour of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Myanmar.
EtymologyPrior to the 10th century, words other than "slave" were used for all kinds of unfree labourers. For instance, the old Latin word servus was used for both serfs and chattel slaves.
The word slave, in Modern English, originates from the Middle English sclave, the Old French esclave, the Medieval Latin sclavus and ultimately from the early Greek sklabos (from sklabenoi) meaning "Slavic people". The term originally referred to various peoples from Eastern and Central Europe, as many Slavic and other people from these areas were captured and sold as slaves by the Vikings, and later a Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I (912–973), and his successors.
DefinitionsThe 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as "...the status and/or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised..." Slaves cannot leave an owner, an employer or a territory without explicit permission (they must have a passport to leave), and they will be returned if they escape. Therefore a system of slavery — as opposed to the isolated instances found in any society — requires official, legal recognition of ownership, or widespread tacit arrangements with local authorities, by masters who have some influence because of their social and/or economic status and their lives. The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines forced labour as "all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily", albeit with certain exceptions of: military service, convicted criminals, emergencies and minor community services.
The current usage of the word serfdom is not usually synonymous with slavery, because medieval serfs were considered to have rights, as human beings, whereas slaves were considered “things” — property.The evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Slavery can be traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (~1800 BC), which refers to slavery as an already established institution. An important exception occurred under the reign of the Achaemenid Empire in Persia in 500 BC. The forced labor of women in some ancient and modern cultures may also be identified as slavery. Slavery, in this case, includes sexual services.
Historically, most slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped in isolated raids, but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme conditions. Most slaves were born into that status, to parents who were enslaved. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families, who were either killed, ransomed or sold as slaves. Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Slavery may originally have been more humane than simply executing those who would return to fight if they were freed, but the effect led to widespread enslavement of particular groups of people. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors. The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves with little fear of suffering the like fate. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune, as when Seneca warned, at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone might find himself enslaved.
Brief sporadic raids or kidnapping could mean enslavement of persons otherwise not at war. St. Patrick recounted in his Confession having been kidnapped by pirates.
In ancient societiesAncient societies characterized by poverty, rampant warfare or lawlessness, famines, population pressures, and cultural and technological lag are frequently exporters of slaves to more developed nations. Today the illegal slave trade (mostly in Africa) deals with slaves who are rural people forced to move to cities, or those purchased in rural areas and sold into slavery in cities. These moves take place due to loss of subsistence agriculture, thefts of land, and population increases.
In many ancient cultures, persons (often including their family) convicted of serious crimes could be sold into slavery. The proceeds from this sale were often used to compensate the victims. The Code of Hammurabi (~1800 BC) prescribes this for failure to maintain a water dam, to compensate victims of a flood. The convicted criminal might be sold into slavery if he lacked the property to make compensation to the victims. Other laws and other crimes might enslave the criminal regardless of his property. Some laws called for the criminal and all his property to be handed over to his victim.
Child slaveryPeople have been sold into slavery so that the money could be used to pay off their debts. This could range from a judge, king or Emperor ordering a debtor sold with all his family, to the poor selling off their own children to prevent starvation. In times of dire need such as famine, people have offered themselves into slavery not for a purchase price, but merely so that their new master would feed and take care of them.
In most institutions of slavery throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the master. Local laws varied as to whether the status of the mother or of the father determined the fate of the child, but it was usually determined by the status of the mother. In many cultures, slaves could earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own freedom. This was not possible in all cultures.
According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. There are millions of people throughout the world — mainly children — in conditions of virtual slavery, as well as in various forms of servitude which are in many respects similar to slavery." It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. Critics claim they are stretching the definition and practice of slavery beyond its original meaning, and are actually referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery .
Slave workThe type of work slaves did depended on the time period and location of their slavery. In general, they did the same work as everyone else in the lower echelons of the society they lived in but were not paid for it beyond room and board, clothing etc. The most common types of slave work are domestic service, agriculture, mineral extraction, army make-up, industry, and commerce. Prior to about the 18th century, domestic services were acquired in some wealthier households and may include up to four female slaves and their children on its staff. The chattels (as they are called in some countries) are expected to cook, clean, sometimes carry water from an outdoor pump into the house, and grind cereal. Most hired servants to do the same tasks.
Many slaves were used in agriculture and cultivation from ancient times through the 1800s. The strong, young men and women were sometimes forced to work long days in the fields, with little or no breaks for water or food. Since slaves were usually considered valuable property, they were usually taken care of in the sense that minimally adequate food and shelter were provided to maintain good health, and that the workload was not excessive to the point of endangering health. However, this was not always the case in many countries where they worked on land that was owned by absentee owners. The overseers in many of these areas literally worked the slaves to death.
In mineral extraction, the majority of the work, when done by slaves, was done nearly always by men. In some places, they mined the salt that was used during extensive trade in the 19th century.
Some of the men in ancient civilizations who were bought into chattel slavery were trained to fight in their nation's army and other military services. Chattel slaves were occasionally trained in artisan workshops for industry and commerce. The men worked in metalworking, while the females normally worked in either textile trades or domestic household tasks. The majority of the time, the slave owners did not pay the chattels for their services beyond room and board, clothing etc.
However, not all slaves were manual laborers or servants. In some societies slaves sometimes attained highly responsible positions. In the Bible, Joseph, for instance, was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers, who were jealous of his vanity (and his many-colored coat), but rose to become vizier to the Pharaoh. And the ranks of the Mamelukes, who ruled Egypt until being defeated by Napolean in 1798, were filled by slaves from the Caucasus who were allowed to rule Egypt in exchange for maintaining its military defense.
Female slaveryFemale slaves were long traded to the Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab traders and sold into sexual slavery to work as concubines or prostitutes. Typically, females were sold at a lower price than their male counterparts, with one exception being when (predominantly) Irish women captured in Viking raids were sold to the Middle East in the 800-1200 period.
Western slaveryIn the West, slavery ended during the Medieval period, only to be revived after the Renaissance and its appreciation of the organization of classical society (i.e. ancient Greece and Rome).
Human traffickingTrafficking in human beings, sometimes called human trafficking, or sex trafficking (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into prostitution), is not the same as people smuggling. A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked: they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into it. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims. Whilst the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, forced into prostitution, other victims include men, women and children forced into manual labour. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000-900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally.
EconomicsEconomists have attempted to model during which circumstances slavery (and milder variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for land owners when land is abundant but labour is not, so paid workers can demand high wages. If labour is abundant but land is scarce, then it becomes more costly for the land owners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages due to the competition. Thus first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew. It was reintroduced in the Americas and in Russia (serfdom) as large new land areas with few people become available.
Another observation is slavery is more common when the labour done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large scale growing of a single crop. It is much more difficult and costly to check that slaves are doing their best and with good quality when they are doing complex tasks. Thus, slavery tends to decrease with technological advancements requiring more skilled people, even as they are able to demand high wages.
It has also been argued that slavery tends to retard technological advancement, since the focus is on increasing the number of slaves rather than improving the efficiency of labor. Because of this, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece—and later in Rome—was largely separated from physical labour and manufacturing. Some Russian scholars have argued that the Soviet Union's technological development was hindered by Stalin's use of slave labor.
Contemporary slaverySince 1945, debate about the link between economic growth and different relational forms (most notably unfree social relations of production in Third World agriculture) occupied many contributing to discussions in the development decade (the 1960s). This continued to be the case in the mode of production debate (mainly about agrarian transition in India) that spilled over into the 1970s, important aspects of which continue into the present (see the monograph by Brass, 1999, and the 600 page volume edited by Brass and van der Linden, 1997). Central to these discussions was the link between capitalist development and modern forms of unfree labour (peonage, debt bondage, indenture, chattel slavery). Within the domain of political economy it is a debate that has a very long historical lineage, and - accurately presented - never actually went away. Unlike advocacy groups, for which the number of the currently unfree is paramount, those political economists who participated in the earlier debates sought to establish who, precisely, was (or was not) to be included under the rubric of a worker whose subordination constituted a modern form of unfreedom. This element of definition was regarded as an epistemologically necessary precondition to any calculations of how many were to be categorized as relationally unfree.
There are three general types of slavery today: wage slaves, contract slaves, and slaves in the traditional sense.
- Wage slavery often occurs in underdeveloped areas, where employers can afford to employ people at low wages, knowing they can't afford to risk their employment. Most child laborers for example, can be considered to be wage slaves. Marxists and anarchists, however, use the term more broadly to refer to a situation in which a person must sell his or her labor power, submitting to the authority of an employer in order to prosper or merely to subsist; creating a hierarchical social condition in which a person chooses a job but only within a coerced set of choices (e.g. work for a boss or starve) which usually excludes democratic worker's control of the workplace and the economy as a whole and unconditional access to a fair share of the basic necessities of life.
- Contract slaves are generally poor, often illiterate, people who have been tricked into signing contracts they do not understand.
- Slavery in its traditional sense is still very active; only its activities are carried out underground. Actual slavery is still carried out much the same way it has been for centuries: people, often women and children, are abducted (usually from underdeveloped countries such as those in the Middle East, South America, Asia, Africa and the former Soviet Bloc countries), loaded aboard a ship and smuggled to a foreign country (usually Asia or the Middle East) and they are sold, the men and male children sold for labor, while the women and girls for domestic slavery or to work as unwilling prostitutes primarily in Asia and the West.
A combination of wage and contract slavery is found in Sarawak mining towns among Indonesian Dayak immigrants looking for work. They have to buy the tools they need to work with, but often don't have the required money, so they need to buy them on a loan. Then they discover that local food is so expensive that all their wages are spent on that, so they can't pay off the loan and are forced by law to keep working for no gain.
Slavery in China was finally abolished in 1910, although the practice apparently still continues unofficially in some regions.
Slavery still exists today all across the world. Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International and Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to rid the world of slavery.
On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 4 states:
- No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Since 1997, the United States Department of Justice has, through work with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, prosecuted six individuals on charges of slavery in the agricultural industry. These prosecutions have led to freedom for over 1000 slaves in the tomato and orange fields of South Florida.
This is only one example of the contemporary fight against slavery worldwide, which is especially pervasive in agriculture, apparel and the sex industry.
In the contemporary United States, the mantle of "abolitionist" has been widely embraced by those who seek to abolish the death penalty, those advocating immigration rights, and anarchists seeking to abolish the state.
History of abolitionismSlavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of recorded human history — as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. According to the Biblical Book of Exodus, Moses led Israelite slaves out of ancient Egypt — possibly the first written account of a movement to free slaves. Later Jewish laws (known as Halacha) prevented slaves from being sold out of the Land of Israel, and allowed a slave to move to Israel if he so desired. The Cyrus Cylinder, inscribed about 539 BC by the order of Cyrus the Great of Persia, abolished slavery and allowed Jews and other nationalities who had been enslaved under Babylonian rule to return to their native lands. Abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade.
There were celebrations in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Abolition of the slave trade in the United Kingdom. William Wilberforce received much of the credit although the groundwork was an anti-slavery essay by Thomas Clarkson. Wilberforce was also urged by his close friend, Prime Minister William Pitt, to make the issue his own. After the abolition act was passed these campaigners switched to encouraging other countries to follow suit, notably France.
Abolitionist pressure in the United States produced a series of small steps forward. After January 1, 1808, the importation of slaves into the United States was prohibited, but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. Legal slavery persisted; and those slaves already in the U.S. would not be legally emancipated for another 60 years.
ApologiesOn May 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed the Taubira law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity. At the same time the British, Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese delegations declined to give an apology for the slave trade and limited to give a "regret." This is probably due to the legal implications of such a statement. It is worth to mention that it is uncertain whether the apology of these four nations are for "slave trade" or "slavery". Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, also remain an open issue since slavery was practiced in Africa even before the first Europeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade was performed with a high degree of involvement of several African societies. The black slave market was supplied by well-established slave trade networks controlled by local African societies and individuals. Indeed, as already mentioned in this article, slavery persists in several areas of West Africa until the present day.
"There is adequate evidence citing case after case of African control of segments of the trade. Several African nations such as the Ashanti of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria had economies depended solely on the trade. African peoples such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi of Tanzania would serve as middlemen or roving bands warring with other African nations to capture Africans for Europeans."
Several historians have made important contributions to the global understanding of the African side of the Atlantic slave trade. By arguing that African merchants determined the assemblage of trade goods accepted in exchange for slaves, many historians argue for African agency and ultimately a shared responsibility for the slave trade.
The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued by a number of entities across the world. For example, the Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action Plan.
In September, 2006, it was reported that the UK Government may issue a "statement of regret" over slavery, an act that was followed through by a "public statement of sorrow" from Tony Blair on November 27, 2006.
On February 25, 2007 the state of Virginia resolved to 'profoundly regret' and apologize for its role in the institution of slavery. Unique and the first of its kind in the U.S., the apology was unanimously passed in both Houses as Virginia approached the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, where the first slaves were imported into North America in 1619.
On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London, England apologized publicly for Britain's role in colonial slave trade. "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Jesse Jackson praised Mayor Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made.
Sporadically there have been movements to achieve reparations for those formerly held as slaves, or sometimes their descendants. Claims for reparations for being held in slavery are handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. This is often decried as a serious problem, since former slaves' relative lack of money means they often have limited access to a potentially expensive and futile legal process. Mandatory systems of fines and reparations paid to an as yet undetermined group of claimants from fines, paid by unspecified parties, and collected by authorities have been proposed by advocates to alleviate this "civil court problem". Since in almost all cases there are no living ex-slaves or living ex-slave owners these movements have gained little traction. In nearly all cases the judicial system has ruled that the statute of limitations on these possible claims has long since expired.
Nonetheless, from time to time misinformation is circulated (often through e-mail) to United States residents describing a $5000 "slavery tax credit", supposedly passed into law under President Bill Clinton's administration during the 1990s, but never announced to the public. No such credit exists, and persons attempting to promote or take advantage of the alleged credit are subject to prosecution. (See Slavery reparations scam for further information.) A similar scam involves a "tax credit" available to Native Americans.
Religion and slaverySome argue that the Bible condones slavery in Ancient Israelite society by failing to condemn the widespread existing practice present in other cultures. It also explicitly states that under certain circumstances, slavery is morally acceptable. Nonetheless the Bible was used, before and during the American Civil War, by both slaveholders and abolitionists to justify their views. A significant theme in the Bible is deliverance from slavery, as in the Exodus story and in the sense of deliverance from sin. A familiar quotation from the Christian Bible appears in both Isaiah 61:1-2 and Luke 4:17-19:
"And there was delivered unto Him the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when He [Jesus] had opened the book, He found the place where it was written, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor; He hath sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord."
- List of known slaves
- List of notable opponents of slavery
- Abolition of slavery timeline
- Compensated emancipation
- Corporate colonialism
- Debt bondage
- History of slavery
- Indentured servant
- International Year
- Involuntary servitude
- Master-slave dialectic
- Sambo's Grave
- Sexual slavery
- Slave narrative
- Slave rebellion
- Slavery at common law
- Slavery in ancient Greece
- Slavery in ancient Rome
- Slave ship
- Trafficking in human beings
- Unfree labour
- Wage slavery
- William Lynch Speech
- Slavery in Brazil
- Slavery in Canada
- Slavery in Japan
- Slavery in Mauritania
- Slavery in Sudan
- Arab slave trade
- Aztec slavery
- Slavery in Bermuda
- Slavery in antiquity
- Slavery in medieval Europe
- Slavery in Nazi Germany
- Forced labor in Germany during World War II
- Slavery in Soviet Union
- Slavery in modern Africa
- African slave trade
- Atlantic slave trade
- Slavery in Asia
- Coastwise slave trade
- Islam and slavery
- Kholops (semi-slaves in Russia)
- Swedish slave trade
- Slavery in the United States
- Thralls (slaves of the vikings)
- Alex Haley, Roots, 1977 mini-series based on Haley's book
- Owen 'Alik Shahadah, 500 Years Later, 2005
- Haile Gerima, Sankofa, 1993
- Sergio Giral, Cimarron, 1967
- Marlon Brando, Burn!, 1969
- Sergio Giral, El Otro Francisco (The Other Francisco), 1975
- Tomas Gutierrez Alea, La Ultima Cena (The Last Supper), 1976
- Carlos Diegues, Quilombo, 1984
- Gene Hackman, Mississippi Burning, 1988
- Julie Dash, Daughters of the Dust, 1991
- C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America (mockumentary/political drama)
- Stanley Kubrick, Spartacus, 1960
- Jonathan Demme, Beloved, 1998
- Michael Apted, Amazing Grace, 2006
- Charles Burnett, Nightjohn, 1996
- Steven Spielberg, Amistad, 1997
- Fernand Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism, vol. III: The Perspective of the World (1984, originally published in French, 1979.)
- Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (1999)
- Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988)
- Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
- Lal, K. S. Muslim Slave System in Medieval India (1994) http://www.voi.org/books/mssmi/ ISBN 81-85689-67-9
- Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
- Jacqueline Dembar Greene, Slavery in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, (2001), ISBN 0531165388
- Nieboer, H. J. Slavery as an Industrial System (1910)
- Postma, Johannes. The Atlantic Slave Trade, (2003)
- Rodriguez, Junius P., ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
- Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2007)
- Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz Children Of Bondage: A Social History Of The Slave Society At The Cape Of Good Hope, 1652-1813 (1994)
- William Linn Westermann, The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955), ISBN 0871690403
- The Slavery Reader, ed. by Rigas Doganis, Gad Heuman, James Walvin, Routledge 2003
- Mintz, S. Slavery Facts and Myths
- Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (1999), most important recent survey
- Blackmon, Douglas A. Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II Doubleday (March 23, 2008), ISBN 0385-50625-2 ISBN 978-0385-50625-0
- Boles, John. Black Southerners: 1619-1869 (1983) brief survey
- Engerman, Stanley L. Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor (1999)
Eugene D. Roll, Jordan Roll (1974), classic study
- Richard H. King, "Marxism and the Slave South", American Quarterly 29 (1977), 117-31, a critique of Genovese
- Escott, Paul D. "Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom" Journal of Southern History, Vol. 67, 2001
- Parish, Peter J. Slavery: History and Historians (1989)
- Phillips, Ulrich B. American Negro Slavery:A Survey of the Supply, Employment and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regime (1918; paperback reprint 1966), southern white perspective
- Phillips, Ulrich B. Life and Labor in the Old South (1929)
- Sellers, James B. Slavery in Alabama (1950).
- Sydnor, Charles S. Slavery in Mississippi (1933
- Stampp, Kenneth M. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956), a rebuttal of U B Philipps
- Vorenberg, Michael . Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment (2001)
- Weinstein, Allen , Frank O. Gatell, and Lewis Sarasohn, eds., American Negro Slavery: A Modern Reader, third ed. (1978)
- Mintz, S. Digital History Slavery, Facts & Myths http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm
- Tom Brass, Marcel van der Linden, and Jan Lucassen, Free and Unfree Labour. Amsterdam: International Institute for Social History, 1993
- Tom Brass, Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates, London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass Publishers, 1999. 400 pages.
- Tom Brass and Marcel van der Linden, eds., Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues, Bern: Peter Lang AG, 1997. 600 pages. A volume containing contributions by all the most important writers on modern forms of unfree labour.
- Kevin Bales, Disposable People. New Slavery in the Global Economy, Revised Edition, University of California Press 2004, ISBN 0-520-24384-6
- Kevin Bales (ed.), Understanding Global Slavery Today. A Reader, University of California Press 2005, ISBN 0-520-24507-5freak
- Mende Nazer and Damien Lewis, Slave: My True Story, ISBN 1-58648-212-2. Mende is a Nuba, captured at 12 years old. She was granted political asylum by the British government in 2003.
- Gary Craig, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova and Aidan McQuade: Contemporary slavery in the UK: Overview and key issues, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 26 Feb 2007, ISBN 978 1 85935 57
- Somaly Mam Foundation
- Nikolai Getman: The Gulag Collection
- Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
- British Slaves on the Barbary Coast
- Parliament & The British Slave Trade 1600 - 1807
- Digital History - Slavery Fact Sheets
- The West African Squadron and slave trade
- African Holocaust
- Transatlantic Slavery Gallery, Merseyside Maritime Museum
- International Slavery Museum
- The Underground Railroad: Escape from Slavery | Scholastic.com
- British documents on slave holding and the slave trade, 1788-1793 (DjVu) and (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries)
- UN.GIFT - Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
- BBC Radio programme directory on the topic of slavery List of subjects related and extensive links.
- Child in Danger is a Child that Cannot Wait - Columbia and Child Prostitution in Today's World" WNN - Women News Network Sept 16, 2007
- BBC "The Body Trade." Crime reports (recorded for listening on the web) Traffic in humans for sex, organs, labour and babies.
- Ansar Burney Trust
- Anti Slavery International
- Immaculata High School Child Slave Labor News
- Slavery article at The Free Dictionary by Farlex
- Sculpture marks abolition of slave trade anniversary
- Stace England & The Salt Kings Concept Music CD on "The Old Slave House" in Illinois
servile in Afrikaans: Slawerny
servile in Old English (ca. 450-1100): Þēowdōm
servile in Arabic: عبودية
servile in Aragonese: Esclabitut
servile in Aymara: T'aqisiyäwi
servile in Azerbaijani: Quldarlıq quruluşu
servile in Bosnian: Robovlasništvo
servile in Breton: Sklaverezh
servile in Bulgarian: Робство
servile in Catalan: Esclavitud
servile in Czech: Otrokářství
servile in Welsh: Caethwasiaeth
servile in Danish: Slaveri
servile in German: Sklaverei
servile in Estonian: Orjus
servile in Modern Greek (1453-): Σκλαβιά
servile in Spanish: Esclavitud
servile in Esperanto: Sklaveco
servile in Basque: Esklabotza
servile in Persian: بردهداری
servile in Faroese: Trælahandil
servile in French: Esclavage
servile in Galician: Escravitude
servile in Korean: 노예
servile in Hindi: ग़ुलामी
servile in Croatian: Robovlasništvo
servile in Indonesian: Perbudakan
servile in Icelandic: Þrælahald
servile in Italian: Schiavismo
servile in Hebrew: עבדות
servile in Kara-Kalpak: Qulshılıq
servile in Georgian: მონათმფლობელობა
servile in Swahili (macrolanguage): Utumwa
servile in Kongo: Bumpika
servile in Haitian: Esklavay
servile in Kurdish: Xulam
servile in Latin: Servitudo
servile in Lithuanian: Vergovė
servile in Hungarian: Rabszolgaság
servile in Macedonian: Ропство
servile in Malay (macrolanguage): Perhambaan
servile in Dutch: Slavernij
servile in Newari: दास
servile in Japanese: 奴隷
servile in Norwegian: Slaveri
servile in Norwegian Nynorsk: Slaveri
servile in Occitan (post 1500): Esclavatge
servile in Low German: Slaverie
servile in Polish: Niewolnictwo
servile in Portuguese: Escravidão
servile in Romanian: Sclavie
servile in Quechua: Isklaw
servile in Russian: Рабство
servile in Sicilian: Schiavismu
servile in Simple English: Slavery
servile in Slovenian: Suženjstvo
servile in Serbian: Робовласништво
servile in Serbo-Croatian: Ropstvo
servile in Finnish: Orjuus
servile in Swedish: Slaveri
servile in Tamil: அடிமை முறை
servile in Thai: ทาส
servile in Vietnamese: Nô lệ
servile in Turkish: Kölelik
servile in Ukrainian: Рабство
servile in Contenese: 奴隸制
servile in Chinese: 奴隶制度
servile in Slovak: Otroctvo
abject, abused, accepting, acquiescent, agreeable, apple-polishing, ass-kissing, assenting, attendant, attending, base, bootlicking, browbeaten, brown-nosing, client, common, complaisant, compliable, compliant, complying, consenting, craven, cringing, crouching, deferential, demeaning, dependent, despicable, disadvantaged, downtrod, downtrodden, fawning, feudal, feudatory, flattering, ground down, groveling, helping, henpecked, humble, ignoble, in leading strings, in the shade, inferior, infra dig, ingratiating, junior, less, lesser, liege, low, lower, lowly, mean, mean-spirited, menial, ministering, minor, misused, modest, nondissenting, nonresistant, nonresisting, nonresistive, obedient, obeisant, obsequious, on bended knee, oppressed, ordered around, ordinary, overborne, passive, prone, prostrate, regimented, resigned, scurvy, second rank, second string, secondary, serving, servitorial, slavish, slimy, smarmy, sordid, sub, subaltern, subject, submissive, subordinate, subservient, supine, sycophantic, sycophantish, third rank, third string, toadish, toadying, toadyish, trampled, tributary, truckling, tyrannized, ugly, unassertive, uncomplaining, unctuous, underprivileged, unmanned, unresistant, unresisting, vassal, vile, vulgar, waiting, wheedling